A Guide to the Original Jurassic Park Franchise

This is an approximate Time Line for when the films took place. We use the movie release dates because we find it to be canon as there is nothing stated anywhere in the movies, or on our Works Cited, that contradict these dates. We’re not going to the books, comics, or games as they are separate canons and that they all contradict each other as well as the movies.

Dinosaur Size Chart

This chart was constructed by Jurassic Rex 3 and DVREX for the purpose of having a complete quick reference size comparison chart for all the dinosaurs within the Jurassic Park Film Universe.

General Dinosaur Notes

This section encompasses important notes of dinosaurs shown in the film. All evidence is pulled from within all of the films as well as the most current & past paleontological evidence. Modified species names were created to identify the Jurassic Park-series dinosaurs and prehistoric reptiles from their real-world counterparts.

Ceratosaurus

It was originally thought that Ceratosaurus nasicornis was actually considered to be a mutant by us when first doing our research on this animal. Originally we called the Ceratosaurus, Ceratosaurus “mutatus” (x Tyrannosaurus) and believed it was combined with tyrannosaur DNA in order to fill in sequence gaps. This is believed to be inaccurate now as the Ceratosaurus from the Jurassic Park 3 Dinosaur chart shows that it is indeed Ceratosaurus nasicornis after all, we sometimes even make mistakes ourselves during our review process.

Compsognathus

It’s also important to point out that Burke, in The Lost World, incorrectly classified the Compsognathus as a Procompsognathus triassicus. We think that because Burke shares an uncanny resemblance to real-life paleontologist, Dr. Robert T. Bakker, that Dr. Jack Horner, who worked as the Paleontology consultant on all three films, got to play a practical joke with the character in making him appear incompetent in this scene. Evidenced by this here:

“In TLW you may have noticed a paleontologist in the movie that wore a big straw hat and had a beard…this character was based off a real paleontologist that often disagrees with me … I had him eaten too! (laughs)”

From an interview on Dan’s JP3 Page on April 5th, 2001.
It was either that or it was a possible blooper like the one in an early TLW script that Corythosaurus was known as Carinthosaurus or Corinthosaurus and the misspellings of Tyrannosaurus (Tyranosaurus) and Stegosaurus (Stegasaurus) on the embryo tubes in Jurassic Park.

Dilophosaurus

The Dilophosaurus has suffered the most under the gene-splicer of InGen. It seems only the crests remain of this animal. Almost everything else (including aspects of its digestive system) has been altered.

Metriacanthosaurus

Something else of interest is that Metriacanthosaurus was suggested by Jurassic Park Institute to actually might have been Yangchuanosaurus instead as in the Late 80s/Early 90s Yangchuanosaurus was considered to be a species of Metriacanthosaurus. Though the book suggests it is still possible that it is in fact M. parkeri present on the Jurassic Park islands.

Pachycephalosaurus

It was originally thought that the Pachycephalosaurus had undergone some changes from the amount of smaller Pachycephalosaurs seen in the films. Originally it was Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis “vegrandis” and it appeared to be smaller than its regular counterpart and it was originally believed this was possibly due to the genetic splicing the dinosaur went under. Some new evidence did come to light thanks to din0dude and dvrex showing us the Pachycephalosaurs were indeed properly sized according to the Making of Book animatronic picture seen here and here. Also a size comparison was done by DVRex with the Round-Up sequence seen here.

Parasaurolophus

The only way to identify the Parasaurolophus of the Jurassic Park series is a question of color. Females are blue & green while males are often brown & show a hint of green. While it is said that the female Parasaurolophus in Jurassic Park have a slight curvature to their skulls, the skull is generally exactly the same as the males in the second and third film after closer investigation and this makes the sexes of the species indistinguishable from another save for the seperate colors. It is also worthy of notation that the Parasaurolophus in the Jurassic Park series may have an individual ranking system where dominant animals happen to feature different vibrancies of red on their crests & neck. This can in fact be seen in both the first and second films with both males and females featuring red crests/necks and also members of the same sex not featuring this color on their head & neck as dominant by looking blander in color. The Parasaurolophus male herd in Jurassic Park 3 also seem to feature this type of red in varying shades as well on their necks and around their crests. Herding between the species seems to have both male & females divided from one another. It has been suggested that the females are fiercely territorial, evidence for this comes from the introduction video on the rides and film evidence for this can be found in the fact that no males and females have ever been seen in the same herd together, ever, in the three films. The introduction video present at Islands of Adventure indicates that female Parasaurolophus are extremely territorial. It’s also been suggested and likely that males use a color flushing technique (transfering from brown to green) to attract the aggressive females and ease the mating process. Another theory in addition to this is these animals are able flush their colors in the case of changes of mood possibly as well.

Pteranodons

The “Lost World: Jurassic Park 2” Pteranodons were originally supposed to be Pteranodon sternbergi, but were changed to in fact be Pteranodon longiceps. The JP3 variation of Pteranodons are also Pteranodon longiceps and are going to be referred to as Pteranodon “hippocratesi” as they have teeth and highly-aggressive behavior not witnessed by the other species. The Pteranodon longiceps seen in the second film have since been determined to be InGen’s second attempt at correcting the mistakes seen in the Pteranodon “hippocratesi” sub-species and to make them less aggressive and lack teeth. The subject of the various species of Pteranodons is subject to a debate of whether or not sternbergi exists on Sorna or not, there is some evidence for P. sternbergi with Roland’s Dinosaur guide and the trailer’s screensaver seen in the film; however, there is no other physical appearance. It’s suggested that Pteranodon logiceps occupies Isla Nublar what little evidence there is on P. sternbergi is rather small.

Pteranodon “hippocratesi”

During the late 80’s, early 90’s, a team of scientists re-organized the Pterosaur family, reclassifying many species and combining others. During this time, InGen was also in it’s first stages of genetic recovery and reanimation. With the birth of this species, InGen’s scientists quickly realized something had gone wrong.
P. hippocratesi was born with teeth and was seemingly very aggressive. Possible DNA contamination from other pterosaur species such as Rhamphorhynchoids was blamed for the anomalies. They were then contained in what became known as “The Bird Cage” (the Aviary) on Isla Sorna, never to be used on Isla Nublar, or released into the wild when Sorna was evacuated. There also seems to be some evidence that the animals were under close watch and scrutiny because of the facilities in place to monitor them. (Many observations stations, computers systems in place, and some slides possibly used to analyze their DNA for what went wrong or anomalies witnessed in behavior.)

It is known that these animals are carnivores, devouring fish caught from the river that runs through their aviary, but film evidence shows that they are fiercely territorial and will feed their young anything, including humans.

These animals can be quite dangerous and although no male is seen in the film, the male is believed to have been at least relatively larger than the females, possible now dominating the skies over Isla Sorna.

For further reading about the Pteranodons, we suggest the fact or flub section here.

Stegosaurus

In TLW, Stegosaurus stenops reached sizes nearly twice that of known S. stenops specimens..

Spinosaurus

The Spinosaurus in Jurassic Park 3 was certainly more powerful than the known animal, while smaller than the known size of the animal, full grown Spinosaurs could reach 60 feet in length. Some fans have speculated the Spinosaurus in Jurassic Park 3 is actually a sub-adult. As to the origins of the animal, infant spinosaurs probably didn’t have as prominent of a sail and they only had their crocodillian-ish jaws at the time of their birth. It’s possible that InGen classified their Spinosaurus as a Baryonyx as no one knew what the skull of a Spinosaurus should look like because for a brief time in the 1980s, while InGen was cloning their dinosaurs, it was believed that Spinosaurus had the head of a Tyrannosaurus and was related to Acrocanthosaurus. That of course is different today as there’s been information recovered of what Dr. Stromer had found of Spinosaurus from an old photo from before the museum in Munich was bombed during World War II. It is also likely that InGen managed to clone both Baryonyx and Spinosaurus, but classified them both as Baryonyx.

Velociraptors

Now for the Velociraptors, Velociraptor “antirrhopus” is actually a derivation of Deinonychus; the InGen Raptors were called Velociraptors due to old studies, which came out around the time of cloning. These studies grouped most dromaeosaurids into the genus of Velociraptor. Science eventually restudied this classification and reassigned the species, but on Isla Nublar the name stuck. This is assuming since the “Velociraptor” that was found in Montana was really a Deinonychus of course as it makes logistical sense that it was from this picture.

This would also explain why the Jurassic Park series Velociraptor is more comparable in size to Deinonychus instead of Utahraptor, contrary to popular belief. So the species names we will refer to as for the female Velociraptors in “Jurassic Park” and the male and female raptors in “The Lost World: Jurassic Park 2” will be known as: Velociraptor “antirrhopus nublarensis” sensu Paul and the Feathered Raptors featured in “Jurassic Park 3” will be referred to as: Velociraptor “antirrhopus sornaensis” sensu Paul. The “sensu Paul” portion comes from paleontologist, Gregory S. Paul. Michael Crichton adopted Gegory S. Paul’s view of dinosaurs from when he wrote Jurassic Park. Seeing how Spielberg carried over Crichton’s vision of the dinosaurs onto film the “sensu Paul” version shall carry over as well.

It is believed that V. sornaensis is the original Velociraptor that Grant has been digging up in both digs, or relatively close to this animal. InGen most likely cloned the V. sornaensis first and then realized that it’s intelligence and social structure would be making it too dangerous for park viewing. InGen then did some more genetic manipulation to produce the V. nublarensis, realizing the animal was still dangerous, albeit a lot less than V. sornaensis. InGen, possibly already behind schedule from doing this, decided to introduce the animal with massive security precautions in place into the park on Isla Nublar. The difference between the two animals not only are in the coloration/physical features, but possibly the intelligence and their social structure.
V. sornaensis works together as a highly-communicable pack as there is no brutality in their social structure. The social structure is – from what we saw – mostly obeyed by all raptors. It should be noted though that when Grant introduced the call box though a Raptor did break rank, possibly confused by the noise coming from the human, but the female reminded it to get back into rank and the Raptor did. It’s likely that had it been a V. nublarensis the female would’ve not only attacked it, but the other Velociraptor’s attention would be focused on killing Grant, Amanda, Eric, and Paul for food instead of egg retrieval. Ultimately though from the V. sornaensis there was no “attacking” between each other whatsoever as it was only complex communication. The V. sornaensis communicated more with each other with coordinating their attacks better than we saw from the V. nublarensis do in the first two films and this is referenced by the acts of behavior between one another in the two sub-species.

To emphasize the point more so, V. sornaensis had a better understanding of the humans, probably better than V. nublarensis. These understandings were in the fact that a lone male was sent to hunt the group of humans in JP3 and used it’s environment perhaps purposely hiding behind the tank and staying perfectly still to scare Amanda Kirby. In itself this implies that V. sornaensis is very understanding of human emotions of “curiosity”. V. sornaensis again makes another play on human emotions when it comes to compassion, humans not wanting to leave another behind with Udesky.

V. nublarensis’s social structure was relatively brutal in comparison to their V. sornaensis counterparts because we can see them snapping and attacking each other in both JP and TLW. They still communicated with each other, possibly by eye communication and like chimpanzees do, but it wasn’t as complex or as effective as the V. sornaensis. This, in addition to the brutality makes their pack far less organized than the V. sornaensis, and slightly scaled down in intelligence as the V. nublarensis does not take full advantage of their surroundings like the V. sornaensis male did in the Embryonics Administration with playing on Amanda Kirby’s “fascination” of what was in the embryonic tank.

The evolution statements made by the JP3 cast/crew could in fact apply under certain circumstances, but it would take a lot of time for such an evolution to happen unfortunately. If there were a lot more Velociraptors like the “Big One” on Isla Sorna producing off-spring as well as ones like the “Big One” did in fact bring the recessive DNA traits of the V. sornaensis species in the V. nublarensis species out then perhaps in a few years to a few hundred years the V. nublarensis and V. sornaensis would become “one” species again, providing V. sornaensis doesn’t evolve in itself.

On the subject of “The Big One”, there are possibly four things to explain this: genetic mishap, too much growth enhancers, the animal developed a trait to “pass-on” (natural selection), or just naturally aggressive and more intelligent from the other Velociraptor nublarensis. It is also likely that with Muldoon’s comments he could have been emphasizing both types of raptors, especially if he knew about Isla Sorna.

Some might think of the impression that V. nublarensis is being sold short, but really it’s not. The facts are: both are intelligent and both are very dangerous. The difference lies that V. sornaensis is like a can of Coke and V. nublarensis is like a can of Diet Coke or the difference between wolves and humans. Both are still relatively intelligent, but humans are obviously more organized than wolves, but wolves are still efficient killers. The same holds true for our V. sornaensis as they are better organized than the V. nublarensis.

Below are some of the comparing and contrasting of the two animals and exactly how and where they are in-fact different from one another:

Ability Description

Attack Reasoning V. nublarensis is almost capable of the same things as V. sornaensis when it comes to memory, but V. sornaensis is more advanced and better at remembering as they play on human emotion and sets “better” traps than just simple pack coordination. Another reference of an advanced attack method was employed from a lone male V. sornaensis included: trailing the humans without them knowing and entering another way into the Embryonics Administration and remaining perfectly still while waiting for Amanda Kirby to get to close and using her curiosity of the tanks to get the best of her. It’s also possibly that V. nublarensis employed eye contact to eliminate Muldoon and these are also known to be able to open doors, but this is likely not an attack reasoning ability.

Intelligence This category goes under attack-reasoning for the most part. V. nublarensis is more akin to very intelligent wolves in their intelligence, example: opening doors, digging, etc. While V. sornaensis is more organized like early humans in their intelligence. Example of a V. sornaensis is when it fooled Amanda by playing on an illusion, using Udesky as bait.

Pack Functionality
V. nublarensis is more brutal than the V. sornaensis. Evidence of the brutality can be seen in JP & TLW when the V. nublarensis attacks each other. V. sornaensis does not show such brutality to date. We see this in Jurassic Park and The Lost World when V. nublarensis snap each other when they first enter the kitchen and again in The Lost World while Sarah makes her escape. At present there are no examples of V. sornaensis brutality.

Communication Both animals communicate with one another, although V. nublarensis communication with one another is far less as opposed to V. sornaensis, which communicate more with each other. Example: V. nublarensis calling for her hunting partner in JP, but there is no verbal communication while they were stalking Muldoon. There is a lot of verbal communication while V. sornaensis are seen “talking” to each other in Jurassic Park 3 in what could be attributed as a language.

For further reading about the Velociraptors, we suggest the fact or flub section here.

InGen Notes

This section details specifics about Isla Nublar functionality and Isla Sorna functionality along with information on debatable dinosaurs.

Isla Nublar

It is believed that Isla Nublar does not have all of the dinosaurs it was schedueled to have inhabiting the island. The reason for this is that Isla Nublar’s facilities were still in the construction phase. Regardless, there is a determined amount of animals on Isla Nublar in it’s current state, but we also know there was an expansion for possibly more animals if Jurassic Park had avoided it’s catastrophic failure. We know this from Dodgson that there were at least 15 species on Isla Nublar from his one line, “If you get all 15 species off the island…” when talking to Dennis Nedry about stealing the embryos. Other attractions were planned according to Hammond as he said they would be coming online soon after the park opened with the Safari tour (I.E. River Cruise and Aviary). Logically, you wouldn’t have the same dinosaurs for all the rides, you’d want more of a variety. So it is safe to say that there are 15 species on Isla Nublar and probably more planned if Jurassic Park successfully opened. Also, Jurassic Park: Europe was supposed to come online after Jurassic Park: Isla Nublar opened up. JP: Europe was supposed to be in the Azores island chain that’s owned by Portugal so it’s possible seperate dinosaurs, those not appearing on Isla Nublar and maybe some that do, would be on one of the islands that InGen would lease.

Isla Nublar 14th & 15th Dinosaurs

Pteranodon and Compsognathus are considered to be the mystery 14th and 15th animals on Isla Nublar We know that a species of Pteranodon is proven to be there from the mural in TLW in the Operations Center and it’s known that logically only one type of Pterosaur was cloned presently in the movies and that Jurassic Park was to feature “Majestic flying reptiles” on one of it’s rides. As for Compsognathus there are three pieces of evidence that confirm it’s presence on Isla Nublar one is, while Joel Meine (a member of the Jurassic Park community), was at Universal Studios Hollywood he saw an introductory video to the Jurassic Park ride there where John Hammond, played by Sir Richard Attenborough, confirms the presence of Compsognathus on Isla Nublar as a dung eater. Another piece of interesting evidence is this picture here of Phil Tippet holding a Composgnathus in front of the JP Ford Explorer. Further strengthening Compsognathus’ claim to the title as the mystery 15th animal of Isla Nublar is that during 1995 there was a brief “Dinosaurs of Jurassic Park” exhibition showing Compsognathus as one of the dinosaurs of Isla Nublar, the brochure from it here can confirm this. It was originally thought that Apatosaurus was actually to be the mystery 15th on Isla Nublar because of this piece of art here. This piece of art is sketchy and it’s believed this dinosaur – doubious at best – is a Brachiosaurus, but what’s also interesting is this piece of art also appears in the Luncheon scene in Jurassic Park. If Apatosaurus was schedueled to be a dinosaur of Jurassic Park it’s likely it was scrapped somewhere along the lines before the movie was finished. This fact would explain Compsognathus’s appearance in the official exhibit and various other sources afterwards as one of Nublar’s final two species.

Isla Sorna

With Isla Sorna (InGen’s Site B) Hammond stated “…dozens of species interacting with one and another…” which implies there are more or less species than the species you see on Isla Sorna. So theoritically the list for this island can always be changing and introducing more dinosaurs with more movies as there is no determined amount.

Conflicting Evacuation Date

Approximate date of InGen personel abandoning Site B was supposedly after the date of May 22, 1994 due to a supposed “movie prop” that cannot be spotted anywhere in the film. As it cannot be seen anywhere within Jurassic Park 3 in any scene this is the prop piece in question, click here, was officially removed from the canon on 12/07/2006 due to the fact it cannot be spotted within any segement of the third film. If this prop remained in the canon Hammond’s comment from The Lost World: Jurassic Park of leaving the island deserted for four years after Hurricane Clarissa would have conflicted with it.

The InGen Conspiracy

Several people believe InGen was up to “no good” based off comments made by Joe Johnston and the character of Alan Grant in Jurassic Park 3. The fact to this rumor is that the InGen up to “no good” is speculative and genuinely without merit presently as InGen’s own actions under the direction of John Hammond says otherwise. John Hammond’s goal was to design a theme park, not for people to get injured or worse, killed, by his “attractions”. The only “evil” moment shown by InGen was in The Lost World; however, Ludlow wasn’t in the position of CEO long enough to enact any secret projects aside from the secret project of harvesting dinosaurs from Site B.

Debatable Isla Sorna Dinosaurs

Apatosaurus, Hadrosaurus, Leptoceratops, Maiasaura, and Muttaburrasaurus are all heavily debated upon on as to whether they’re on Isla Sorna or not. One thing is certain, though – is that Psittacosaurus is not on Isla Sorna.

Apatosaurus

Apatosaurus is partially confirmed to be on Isla Sorna due to The Lost World Official Souvenir Magazine identifying the bones in the town as belonging to an “Apatosaur”.

“Everywhere, the land is is dotted with dinosaur skeletons. Some are huge apatosaurs, while others are smaller herbivores of many different species.”

(The Lost World Souvenir Magazine, 42).

Futher evidence stems from a dinosaur fetus prop from Jurassic Park 3 that appears to bear a resemblance to a undeveloped, baby Apatosaur as the neck would grow longer later in life; however, some say this prop looks like a Hadrosaurus.

Hadrosaurus

Hadrosaurus’ presence on Isla Sorna is determined from this piece of evidence here; however, the evidence is suspect as this prop does not appear in the film at all. It does share some uncanny resembelence to Roland Tembo’s InGen Dinosaur Packets though, but again the status of this animal is debatable and not considered canon at this time due to the prop not being actually seen in the film, but instead a later variant of this prop.

Leptoceratops

Leptoceratops is partially confirmed as being on Isla Sorna due to a logo for TLW depicting what appears to be a Leptoceratops. This is the only source of evidence for the animal; however, we’re not entirely sure that it is a Leptoceratops that the logo is representing. Worthy of note is that there were talks of Leptoceratops prior to the movie’s release, and it actually was in a prior script before one of the final revisions before TLW’s filming. However, this script is now lost to us.

Maiasaura and Muttaburrasaurus

The two JP3 trading cards made by InkWorks featuring Muttaburrasaurus and Maiasaura are the only evidence for these animals.

Psittacosaurus

As for the fate of poor Psittacosaurus it is not confirmed to be on either Isla Sorna or Isla Nublar. Even though Psittacosaurus was posted as a dinosaur of Jurassic Park on the Ride Official site, which has been taken down, as well as The Lost World Official Site it is generally not accepted as movie canon for a few reasons: Psittacosaurus was meant to be a ride exclusive dinosaur for Universal Studios theme parks, meaning in the alternative universe of the rides it was cloned after the events of Isla Nublar and possibly after Isla Sorna was abandoned to be at the location of Universal Studios. There has been zero movie reference to a Jurassic Park theme park to be a subsidiary of Universal Studios, which the ride implies InGen has become in the ride’s introductionary videos. The point being stressed here is that the rides are seperate to the movies unless they’re making an uncontradictory referral to movie events that preceed them. That was the case with why Compsognathus is accepted as being on Isla Nublar. The other reason why Psittacosaurus is not considered a movie canon dinosaur is because The Lost World Official Site is not considered canon. The reason for this is the fact that the map present on The Lost World Official site depicting Isla Sorna is horribly inaccurate and contradicts what is in the movie. The Isla Sorna map on The Lost World Official site is actually more comparable to the novel version than anything. Also, it was noted that The Lost World Official site was also reprinting the same material from the JP Hollywood Official Ride’s Site.

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